Crohn's disease - a chronic relapsing disease of unknown etiology characterized by granulomatous inflammation with segmental lesions of the various gastrointestinal tract. The pathological process develops mainly in the intestine but can affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus and oral cavity. Nonspecific immune inflammation extends through the entire thickness of the intestinal wall, and infiltration of leukocytes is shown. The mucosa permeation zone formed deep ulcers, abscesses and fistulas develop, followed by scarring and narrowing of the intestinal lumen.
Causes: - The reasons that trigger the development of the above-described pathological process is still not known. It is believed that for Crohn's disease in the body produce antibodies to the intestinal tissues. The release heredity and smoking as contributing factors.
Symptoms: - Intestinal manifestations are cramping abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, inflammation and cracks in the anus. The patient loses weight, he shows signs of vitamin deficiencies, metabolic disorders of varying severity. By extraintestinal characteristics also include fever, anemia, aphthous stomatitis, arthritis, eye disease (iritis, uveitis, episcleritis).
Complications: - Crohn's disease is dangerous not only its manifestations but severe complications: intestinal obstruction, perforation of the bowel wall with the development of peritonitis, massive bleeding, internal and external fistulas, stricture, ulcer, inflammatory infiltrates. All of these complications are treated only by surgery.
What you can do: - As diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease should be carried out specialist gastroenterologist or coloproctologist familiar with this disease. Treatment of severe exacerbations carried out only in a hospital. Treatment of mild forms of the disease should also be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. Therefore, if you suspect in themselves or their loved ones Crohn's disease, you should consult a doctor immediately.
What can a doctor : - For the diagnosis of disease and determination of treatment tactics requires: Ultrasound abdomen; scatological study; barium enema - serial radiography of the small intestine. Endoscopic studies (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy) are most useful in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease with lesions of the colon, the bowel biopsy is often performed portion. The resulting material is sent for histological examination, the results of which an accurate diagnosis can be set.
In the absence of complications requiring surgical treatment, provide medical and nutritional therapy. The main groups of drugs for the treatment of Crohn's disease are corticosteroids and drugs are 5-aminosalicylic acid. Usually given a combination of these drugs. In the case of infection of joining used antibiotics.