Apr 26, 2017

Crohn's disease - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention,Complications, Treatment

Crohn's disease - a chronic relapsing disease of unknown etiology characterized by granulomatous inflammation with segmental lesions of the various gastrointestinal tract. The pathological process develops mainly in the intestine but can affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus and oral cavity. Nonspecific immune inflammation extends through the entire thickness of the intestinal wall, and infiltration of leukocytes is shown. The mucosa permeation zone formed deep ulcers, abscesses and fistulas develop, followed by scarring and narrowing of the intestinal lumen.

Causes: - The reasons that trigger the development of the above-described pathological process is still not known. It is believed that for Crohn's disease in the body produce antibodies to the intestinal tissues. The release heredity and smoking as contributing factors.

Symptoms: - Intestinal manifestations are cramping abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, inflammation and cracks in the anus. The patient loses weight, he shows signs of vitamin deficiencies, metabolic disorders of varying severity. By extraintestinal characteristics also include fever, anemia, aphthous stomatitis, arthritis, eye disease (iritis, uveitis, episcleritis).
Complications: - Crohn's disease is dangerous not only its manifestations but severe complications: intestinal obstruction, perforation of the bowel wall with the development of peritonitis, massive bleeding, internal and external fistulas, stricture, ulcer, inflammatory infiltrates. All of these complications are treated only by surgery.

What you can do: - As diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease should be carried out specialist gastroenterologist or coloproctologist familiar with this disease. Treatment of severe exacerbations carried out only in a hospital. Treatment of mild forms of the disease should also be carried out under the supervision of a specialist. Therefore, if you suspect in themselves or their loved ones Crohn's disease, you should consult a doctor immediately.

What can a doctor : - For the diagnosis of disease and determination of treatment tactics requires: Ultrasound abdomen; scatological study; barium enema - serial radiography of the small intestine. Endoscopic studies (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy) are most useful in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease with lesions of the colon, the bowel biopsy is often performed portion. The resulting material is sent for histological examination, the results of which an accurate diagnosis can be set.

In the absence of complications requiring surgical treatment, provide medical and nutritional therapy. The main groups of drugs for the treatment of Crohn's disease are corticosteroids and drugs are 5-aminosalicylic acid. Usually given a combination of these drugs. In the case of infection of joining used antibiotics.

Heartburn - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

Heartburn - a burning sensation in the chest, which may be accompanied by nausea, flatulence, belching, bitter or sour taste in the mouth and throat. Most often, heartburn happens after a heavy meal in the supine position. Sometimes heartburn can be taken for other problems, such as pain in the heart. Heartburn may be a sign of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Causes of heartburn :-The acidic contents of the stomach, which gets into the esophagus for the following reasons:
  • overeating and unhealthy habits, such as eating on the go, inadequate chewing of food, drinking chocolate, fatty, spicy sweet food; 
  • overweight; 
  • smoking ; 
  • abuse of citrus, tomatoes, chocolate and mint; 
  • hot and spicy food; 
  • an excessive amount of onions in the food; 
  • consumption of alcohol, carbonated drinks, coffee; 
  • stress; 
  • certain medications (e.g., acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen or naproxen); 
  • too tight clothing pressing on the abdomen (jeans, belts); 
  • tilts forward or lifting weights after a meal; 
  • the weakening of the muscles that control the opening of the esophagus; 
  • hernia of an esophageal aperture; 
  • pregnancy.
Symptoms:- If a burning sensation in the upper abdomen, sometimes reaching up to the esophagus and throat and is worse when bending or lying down, acid regurgitation, a bitter or sour taste in the mouth were you the first time after the violation of the habitual diet, you can try to solve the problem independently. If these symptoms occur frequently or periodically repeated, if there is also a chronic cough, or heartburn occurs in patients receiving drugs (particularly drugs for asthma and heart disease, antidepressants, antihistamines, sedatives or antispasmodic drugs, as well as in women taking birth control pills) should seek medical advice. Be sure to seek medical attention, if heartburn is accompanied by a feeling of fatigue and loss of appetite.
It requires emergency medical care if heartburn is accompanied by dark or bloody stools, bloody vomiting, pain in the chest or back or exacerbate pain with nausea, sweating or vomiting.

Prevention:- Eat slowly, slowly and chewing food thoroughly. Try to stick to a healthy diet, limit the amount of fatty, spicy and fried foods, as well as chocolate, alcohol, carbonated drinks and coffee. Immediately after a meal does not lie down, do not bend or lift heavy objects.
  • Watch your weight.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Avoid tight-fitting clothing that puts pressure on the abdomen.
  • Try to avoid stress.
What you can do :- If necessary, you can take medicines that reduce stomach acid, and are sold without a prescription. Should quit smoking. you suffer from obesity, you need to lose weight.
Consult a doctor if heartburn occurs frequently and a strong burning sensation.

What can a doctor :- Determine the cause of the symptoms and eliminate the serious diseases such as peptic ulcer or other problems of the digestive system. Appropriate treatment and advice on diet and regime. Appoint an endoscopy or ultrasound. If necessary, hospitalized or to recommend surgery for a a hiatal hernia.

Flatulence (Gas) - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Flatulence - is an excessive accumulation of gas in the intestines manifested bloating, discomfort in the abdomen. Where does the gas in the intestines? Firstly, it is isolated from the bacteria in the fermentation of food. Secondly, can swallow air while eating or talking (usually it goes to belch). Flatulence is not a severe or dangerous disease, but often the cause of embarrassment and discomfort.

Causes of flatulence
  • improper diet (foods rich not digestible carbohydrates, these carbohydrates are fermented by bacteria in the gut), 
  • consumption of carbonated drinks 
  • quick ingestion of food and drink large sips 
  • the conversation during the meal 
  • sky deformation, teeth, and nose, 
  • intolerance of certain products (e.g., lactase deficiency - the inability to digest lactose, milk sugar) 
  • frequent constipation (slow down of food through the intestines, increased the likelihood of fermentation and delayed evolved gasses).
Symptoms of flatulence:-
  • burp 
  • bloating, 
  • pain and discomfort in the abdomen.
What you can do :- Try to eat fewer foods that cause flatulence. These include:
  • beans 
  • various kinds of cabbage (broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts), onions, artichokes, 
  • pears, apples, and peaches 
  • whole grains, wheat bran, 
  • soft drinks and fruit drinks 
  • milk and dairy products, for example, ice cream, cheese 
  • foods containing lactose, such as bread, cereals.
Drink plenty of water, broth, without soda drink, beer and soda (they enhance the fermentation processes in the gut). Try to let go of beverage glasses, for example, pouring from a bottle into a glass.
Learn to eat slowly and chew thoroughly pieces of food. This will reduce the amount of air ingested.
Discard the chewing gum, hard candy, and smoking.

Visit the dentist (especially if you have artificial teeth) in order to check the condition of the oral cavity.

You can take medication, eliminating flatulence (simethicone, activated charcoal). 
Consult your doctor if you suffer from constant flatulence (or acute), accompanied by abdominal pain and weight loss.

What can a doctor :- Your doctor can determine the cause of flatulence and to exclude from the list of possible diagnoses more serious illness (eg, gallbladder disease). You will have a proper treatment in accordance with the etiology of the disease and symptomatic therapy. Sometimes you need the appointment of laxatives and drugs that improve intestinal motility.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complications,Treatments

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) (QDSL, spastic colitis, irritable bowel syndrome) is usually manifested bloating and cramps and disorders of the intestine. QDSL Symptoms vary from person to person.

For example, one - constipation (difficult and rare bowel movements), another diarrhea, and a third may be those and other symptoms at the same time. Normally, the chair should be formalized, but not hard, do not contain blood streaks, the act of defecation should not be accompanied by pain or spasms of the intestine. 

The frequency of acts of defecation, each one is different for 3 times a day for another 3 times a week. QDSL is not a serious illness. In fact, doctors believe QDSL functional disorder, because the colon examination revealed no signs of illness. QDSL often appear against a background of stress, fatigue, nervous overexcitement.
Causes :- Although the reasons are not clear QDSL, it is known that the colon of people suffering from this disease is more reactive than normal. A person with a job QDSL large intestine change certain triggers, such as certain foods, medications, or stress.

Symptoms :-
  • abdominal pain
  • bloating 
  • gas formation 
  • changes in bowel habits, such as constipation or diarrhea.
What you can do:-
  • Keep a diary of your diet, avoid foods that cause you QDSL (eg, chocolate) 
  • Avoid fatty foods, especially fatty meat, skin of poultry, whole milk, cream, cheese, butter and vegetable oil, margarine, avocados and whipped cream 
  • increase the proportion of fiber in your diet (for this fit whole wheat bread, beans, fruits, and vegetables), 
  • for the relief of diarrhea and intestinal cramps eat small meals, but often 
  • try less nervous, use a variety of techniques to relieve stress 
  • if you horilka in the stool has an admixture of blood, you lose weight or suffer prolonged abdominal pain, contact your doctor. 
Eating fiber and use of laxatives (occasionally) can relieve constipation, but for starters, you should consult with your doctor. 

Studies have shown that women have symptoms appear sharper during the menstrual cycle, so if you are taking hormones, remember that they can cause aggravation QDSL.

What can a doctor:- Specific analysis QDSL does not exist. The doctor will prescribe tests and studies to rule out other diseases. Excluded from the list of possible diagnoses a serious disease, the doctor will calm you.

In such cases usually, recommend a diet rich in fiber. The doctor will advise that you need to change in lifestyle.

Of the medicines prescribed mild tranquilizers (if you are under stress or pathological anxiety), antispasmodics, antidiarrheal drugs and laxatives in the case of constipation.

Prophylaxis of irritable bowel syndrome :- 
- Choose foods rich in fiber, such as whole-grain bread, vegetables, and fruit. 
- try not to eat foods that can aggravate symptoms, such as artificial sweeteners, dairy products, and caffeine, especially if you have diarrhea. Make a wish list of products that you are poorly tolerated.
Learn to cope with stress, do special exercises and use a variety of relaxation techniques.

Hay Fever (Rhinitis) - Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

Hay fever is actually not a fever and represents an allergic reaction accompanied attacks sneezing, runny nose and nasal congestion. Its medical name for allergic rhinitis, a disease that is triggered by such allergens, such as dust, pollen, and cigarette smoke and is manifested in inflammation of the nasal mucosa.

Allergies to pollen seasons. Aggravation usually occurs in the summer, especially on hot and windy days when pollen floating in the air. On the other hand, if the allergen is a common dust or animal dander, the disease is less acute, but throughout the year.

Allergic rhinitis often appears with vasomotor rhinitis, when the nose becomes very sensitive to irritants such as cigarette smoke and other air polluting agents, changes in temperature and humidity, some foods, medications and emotional stress. Also increase the risk of allergic rhinitis, other allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.
Hay fever usually develops before the age of 30 years and mainly affects women, but not men.

Causes of rhinitis : - The cause of the rhinitis is allergy usually pollen, fungi, hair, animal hair, dust. These substances are harmless to most people, but allergies when inhaled they cause an exaggerated immune response. This starts a cascade of biochemical reactions, which results in massive yield in blood histamine and other chemical compounds that cause inflammation and mucus in the nasal passages and sinuses.

The symptoms of hay fever (allergic rhinitis) : - The first symptoms of irritation, itching of the nose, throat, on the palate, inflammation, and redness of the eyes. 

Next, runny nose, sneezing, shortness of breath, his eyes begin to tear. In some cases, it may develop conjunctivitis.

What you can do : - Do not open windows and doors in an apartment or office. Ventilate after rain and night when there is no wind (when the concentration of pollen in the air is reduced). At an open window or door can be hung well-soaked sheet or gauze in several layers. The highest concentration of pollen in the air is observed in the early morning and in the dry hot days, so is not particularly recommended during this period of time to go out. After returning from the street should change clothes. Close the windows in the car when traveling. 

Take a shower at least twice a day. Do not dry after washing things on the street (or balcony), as they pollen settles.

Daily wet cleaning in the apartment, it is recommended the use of purifiers and air humidifiers, filters with use of the air conditioner at the exit. 

Carefully take medications prescribed by the doctor, and keep a diary of their condition, it will help your doctor to prevent allergy in the future.

What can make your doctor: - In pharmacotherapy, ay fever used 5 main groups of drugs: antihistamines; steroids; Voltage regulators of mast cell membranes; vasoconstrictor drugs; anticholinergics. When you receive antihistamines in patients with significantly reduced symptoms of allergic rhinitis such as nasal itching, sneezing, runny nose. Effective these drugs and the concomitant allergic conjunctivitis.

To the basic methods of treatment also applies allergen-specific immunotherapy, which can increase the duration of remission (no symptoms) to several years, to reduce the need for taking drugs in the season exposure to allergens, prevents the transition of allergic rhinitis in bronchial asthma . Carrying out this type of therapy is indicated in patients suffering from hay fever, with clearly identified allergens.